Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Environmental Issues in Business Aviation Assignment

Environmental Issues in Business Aviation - Assignment Example The significant environmental hazards in the Business aviation aircraft industry are the green house emissions and the noise (A Greener Future 2011). These gases emitted by business aviation aircrafts especially carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (GAMA 2010) creates a layer in the atmosphere trapping heat on the earth’s surface. This heat in turn causes the Global warming (International Business 2011), alters the pattern of precipitation and the pattern of the heat waves. Noise causes annoyance to people; fortunately, current business aviation aircrafts produce less noise as compared to earlier business aviation aircrafts. There is a need to develop lasting solution to the management of emissions. This involves all the stakeholders to play active roles. The approach is best achieved through technology, finances or infrastructure, improvements in operations, alternative fuels and market focused measures. Technology Technology in business aviation is demanding efficiency. Business aviation aircrafts must be as light as possible and consume less fuel as possible. The business aviation has collaborated with other stakeholders in environmental issues work group, business aviation environmental projects, technology enhancements by engine manufactures, aerodynamic enhancements by business aviation aircrafts manufactures, airspace management and technology, voluntary offset programmes, flight department participation and operational measures (GAMA 2010). Establishing common and practical goals in the engine and airframe technology enhancements are particularly vital in the management of environmental issues (GAMA 2010). The engines of today are designed to economise on fuel, produce less noise and emit fewer gases. ... Business aviation aircrafts must be as light as possible and consume less fuel as possible. The business aviation has collaborated with other stakeholders in environmental issues work group, business aviation environmental projects, technology enhancements by engine manufactures, aerodynamic enhancements by business aviation aircrafts manufactures, airspace management and technology, voluntary offset programmes, flight department participation and operational measures (GAMA 2010). Establishing common and practical goals in the engine and airframe technology enhancements are particularly vital in the management of environmental issues (GAMA 2010). The engines of today are designed to economise on fuel, produce less noise and emit fewer gases. The business aviation airframes are also built in the sense of reducing noise and carry more weight. This technology commitment is expected to continue; and in the future years, it is expected that business aviation aircrafts will be much lighter and consume less fuel. The emissions have drastically been reduced in the business aviation sector. The current business aviation aircraft engines (GAMA 2010) emit less hazardous gas and produces less noise. A business aircraft produces 3.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide per flight (International Business 2011). The carbon dioxide emissions in one year by all the business aviation aircraft combined produce emissions similar to one medium sized power plant (International Business 2011). Reduction of carbon emissions (ICAO 2011) in business aviation aircrafts is done on various ways, checking on operator practices, air traffic control, engine design, airframe design and use of alternative fuels. Carbon is the principal component. The engines use oxygen to burn the fossil fuel,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Assignment Questions Chapters 5-7 Psychology Essay Example for Free

Assignment Questions Chapters 5-7 Psychology Essay 1. Most current studies aimed at understanding human memory are conducted within a framework known as information-processing theory. This approach makes use of modern computer science and related fields to provide models that help psychologists understand the processes involved in memory. The general principles of the information processing approach to memory include the notion that memory involves three distinct processes. The first process, encoding, is the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory. The second process, storage, is the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory. The final process, retrieval, is the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in the memory (p.168). Two influential theorists concerning the information-processing theory are Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin. They characterized memory as three different, interacting memory systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Sensory memory is the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds. Sensory memory can take in an enormous amount of information, but it can only hold on to it for a very brief period of time (p.169). Short-term memory is the component of the memory system that holds about seven (from five to nine) items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal; also called the working memory. When short-term memory is filled to capacity, displacement can occur. In displacement, each new incoming item pushes out an existing item, which is then forgotten (p.170). Long-term memory (LTM) is the memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a persons permanent or relatively permanent memories. There are no known limits to the storage capacity of this memory system, and long-term memories can persist for years, some of them for a lifetime. Information in long-term memory is usually stored in semantic form, although visual images, sounds, and odors can be stored there as well (p.174). 2. The analogy heuristic involves comparing a problem to others you have experienced in the past. The idea is that if a particular strategy worked with similar problems in the past, it will be effective for solving a new one. Another heuristic that is effective for solving some problems is working backward, sometimes called the backward search. This approach starts with the solution, a known condition, and works back through the problem. Once the backward search has revealed the steps to be taken and their order, the problem can be solved (p.207). Another popular heuristic strategy is means-end analysis, in which the current position is compared with a desired goal, and a series of steps are formulated and then taken to close the gap between the two. When you adopt a heuristic strategy, it may or may not lead to a correct solution. By contrast, the algorithm is a problem-solving strategy that always lead to a correct solution if it is applied appropriately (p.208). 3.Research suggests that there are both advantages and disadvantages to learning two languages early in life. One of the pluses is that, among preschool and school-age children, bilingualism, fluency in at least two languages, is associated with better executive control skills on language tasks. Executive control skills enable bilingual children to suppress impulsive responses to verbal tasks and, as a result, think more carefully about them. Thus, executive control skills are important in learning to read and write. On the downside, even in adulthood, bilingualism is sometimes associated with decreased efficiency in memory tasks involving words. However, bilinguals appear to develop compensatory strategies that allow them to make up these inefficiencies. Consequently, they often perform such tasks as accurately as monolinguals, though they may respond more slowly. Researchers have found that there is no age at which it is impossible to learn a new language. While it is true that those who begin earlier reach higher levels of proficiency, age is not the only determining factor (p.214). There is one clear advantage to learning two languages earlier in life, however. People who are younger when they learn a new language are far more likely to be able to speak with an appropriate accent. One reason for this difference between early and late language learners may have to do with slight variations in neural processing in Brocas area, the area of the brain that controls speech production. Research suggests that bilinguals who learned a second language early rely on the same patch of tissue in Brocas area for both of the languages they speak. In those who learned a second language at an older age, two different sections of Brocas are are active while they are performing language tasks (p.215). 4. Charles Spearman observed that people who are bright in one area are usually bright in other areas as well. In other words, they tend to be generally intelligent. Spearman came to believe that intelligence is composed of a general ability that underlies all intellectual functions. Spearman concluded that intelligence tests tap this g factor, or general intelligence, and a number of s factors, or specific intellectual abilities. Spearmans influence can be seen in those intelligence tests, such as the Stanford-Binet, that yield one IQ score to indicate the level of general intelligence. Howard Gardner also denies the existence of a g factor. Instead, he proposes a theory of multiple intelligences that includes eight important forms of intelligence, or frames of mind. The eight frames of mind are linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. In recent years, he has proposed a ninth type of intelligence, one that he calls existential intelligence, deals with the spiritual realm and enables us to contemplate the meaning of life. He first developed his theory by studying patients with different types of brain damage that affect some forms of intelligence but leaves other intact. The most controversial aspect of Gardners theory is his view that all forms of intelligence are of equal importance. In fact, different cultures assign varying degrees of importance to the types of intelligence (p.216-217). 5. I would perform a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule, in which a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct, non reinforced responses. So, if my dog knew that after rolling over correctly ten times without getting reinforced meant that she would get a reinforced after those ten times, she would then learn that after rolling over ten times correctly, she would be reinforced (p.147). In fixed-rate schedules response rates are very high, and the higher the ratio, the more resistant to extinction (p.148). 6. Psycholinguistics is the study of how language is acquired, produced, and used and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning. Psycholinguists use specific terms for each of the five basic components of language. The smaller units of sound in a spoken language-such as b or s in English-are known as phonemes. Three phonemes together form the sound of the word cat: c (which sounds like k), a, and t. Combinations of letters that form particular sounds are also phonemes, such as the th in the and the ch in child. The same phoneme may be represented by different letters in different words; this occurs with the a in stay and the ei in sleigh. And the same letter can serve as different phonemes. This letter a, for example, is sounded as four different phonemes in day, cap, watch, and law. Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in a language. A few single phonemes serve as morphemes, such as the article a and the personal pronoun I. The ending -s gives a plural meaning to a word and is thus a morpheme in English. Many words in English are single morphemes-book, word, learn, reason, and so on. In addition to root words, morphemes may be prefixes (such as re- in relearn) or suffixes (such as -ed to show past tense, as in learned). The single morpheme reason becomes a dual morpheme in reasonable. The morpheme book (singular) become two morphemes in books (plural). Syntax is the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences. The rules of word order, syntax, differ from one language to another. For example, an important rule of syntax in English is that adjectives usually come before nouns. So English speakers refer to the residence of the U.S. president as the White House. In Spanish, in contrast, the noun usually comes before the advective, and Spanish speakers say la Casa Blanca, or the House White. Semantics refers to the meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences. The same word can have different meanings depending on how it is used in sentences: I dont mind. Mind your manners. He has lost his mind. Or consider another example: Loving to read, the young girl read three books last week. Here, the word read is pronounced two different ways, and in one case, is the past tense. Pragmatics, is the term psycholinguists use to refer to aspects of language such as intonation, the rising and falling patterns that are used to express meaning. For example, think about how you would say the single word cookie to express each of the following meanings: Do you want a cookie? or What a delicious looking cookie! or Thats a cookie. The subtle differences reflect your knowledge of the pragmatic rules of English (P.210-211). 7. An intelligence test is a measure of general intellectual ability. An individuals score is determined by how his responses compare to others of his or her age. Thus, intelligence tests are norm-referenced. All psychological tests, including all the various types of tests that measure cognitive ability, are judged according to the same criteria.They must provide consistent results. An intelligence test must have reliability; the test must consistently yield nearly the same score when the same person is tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test. The higher the correlation between the two scores, the more reliable the test. Tests can be highly reliable but worthless if they are not valid. Validity is the ability or power of a test to measure what it is intended to measure. Once a test is proven to be valid or reliable, the next requirement is norm-referenced standardization. There must be standard procedures for administering and scoring the test. Exactly the same directions must be given, whether written or oral, and the same amount of time must be allowed for every test taker. But even more important, standardization means establishing norms, age-based averages, by which all scores are interpreted. A test is standardized by administering it to a large sample of people who are representative of those who will be taking the test in the future. The groups score are analyzed, and then the average score, standard deviation, percentile rankings, and other measures are computed. These comparative scores become the norms used as the standard against which all other scores on that test are measured. Reliability, validity, and standardization are especially important with regard to intelligence tests because the kinds of decisions that are sometimes based on intelligence test scores can have grave consequences. For example, a few years ago the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that is unconstitutional to execute individuals who have mental retardation. Thus, a psychologist who is charged with the responsibility of administering an intelligence test to a person who will or will not be subject to the death penalty at least partly on the basis of his or her intelligence test score must ensure that the test given is reliable and valid and has been properly standardized. Likewise, childrens scores on these tests are often used to place them in special school programs that, in a very real sense, change the course of their lives for years to come. In fact, such a goal was the impetus for the development of the first standardized intelligence test (p.219). 8. In memory loss there are two broad categories that involves this kind of memory loss, amnesia and dementia. Amnesia is a partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or some psychological cause. Unlike the memory disorders that are experienced by some older adults, amnesia can be experienced at any age. In some cases, amnesia takes the form of an inability to store new information. This kind of amnesia is known as anterograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form long-term memories of events occurring after a brain injury or brain surgery, although memories formed before the trauma are usually intact and short-term memory is unaffected. Some individuals with amnesia can form new memories, but they cannot remember the past, a disorder known as retrograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is a loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness. These people often lack knowledge of themselves and/or the events surrounding the development of their memory loss. It is not unusual for a person to have both retrograde and anterograde amnesia with regard to the events that immediately preceded and followed a serious car crash or other traumatic event (p. 189). Another form of memory loss is dementia. Dementia is a state of mental deterioration characterized by impaired memory and intellect and by altered personality and behavior. Dementia can result from such conditions as cerebral arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries in the brain), chronic alcoholism, and irreversible damage by a small series of strokes. Dementia is most common among older adults. However, diseases such as HIV/AIDS can cause dementia to develop in a younger person as well. About 50 to 60% of all cases of dementia result from Alzheimers disease. This is a progressive deterioration of intellect and personality that results from widespread degeneration of brain cells (p.190). 9. People reconstruct memories, piecing them together using schemas to organize fragments of information, a process that has both advantages and disadvantages. Information that fits with preexisting schemas can be efficiently remembered, but schemas can also introduce distortions into memory. Sir Frederick Bartletts research demonstrated how reconstructive processing changes memory over time (p.178). Most memories do not include source information, so memories for sources must be reconstructed. Source monitoring results in encoding of source memories. Flashbulb memories are different from others in that they always include source information, although the source information is subject to reconstruction changes over time (p.179). Autobiographical memories are reconstructed memories that include factual, emotional, and interpretive elements. They are subject to positive bias (p.180). 10. Bandura suspected that aggression and violence on television programs, including cartoons, tend to increase aggressive behavior in children. In several classic experiments, Bandura demonstrated how children are influenced by exposure to aggressive models. One study involved three groups of preschoolers. Children in one group individually observed an adult model punching, kicking, and hitting a 5-foot, inflated plastic Bobo Doll with a mallet, while uttering aggressive phrases. Children in the second group observed a nonaggressive model who ignored the Bobo Doll and sat quietly assembling Tinker Toys. The children in the control group were placed in the same setting with no adult present. Later, each child was observed through a one-way mirror. Those children exposed to the aggressive model imitated much of the aggression and also engaged in significantly more nonimitative aggression than did children in either of the other groups. The group that observed the nonaggressive model showed less aggressive behavior than the control group. The researchers concluded that of the three experimental conditions, exposure to humans on film portraying aggression was the most influential in eliciting and shaping aggressive behavior (p. 158-159). 11. Experiencing hunger pangs when you smell your favorite food is an example of classic conditioning.Your stomach rumbles when you smell your favorite food because smell and taste are so closely linked that food odors, functioning as conditioned stimuli, can actually make you think you are hungry even if you have just finished a large meal. The conditioned stimulus (CS) would be the presence of the smell of your favorite food which brings about the unconditioned stimulus (US) hunger pangs. Because humans do not need to be taught to be hungry for food, the act of feeling hungry would be the unconditioned response (UR). The conditioned response (CR) would be knowing that you will get hungry when you smell your favorite food (p.143). 12. Critics argue that therapists using hypnosis and guided imagery to help their patients recover repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse are actually implanting false memories in those patients. They are especially critical of claims of recovered memories in the first three years of life, because the hippocampus and areas of the cortex are not well developed enough to store long-term memories. Therapists who use these techniques believe that a number of psychological problems can be treated successfully by helping patients recover repressed memories of sexual abuse. These therapists believe that a process called repression, a form of motivated forgetting, can cause traumatic memories to be so deeply buried in an individuals unconscious mind that he or she has lost all awareness of them (p.192-193). 13. Writing notes, making lists, writing on a calendar, or keeping an appointment book is often more reliable and accurate than trusting to memory. But if you need information at some unpredictable moment when you dont have aids handy, several mnemonics, or memory devices, and study strategies have developed over the years to aid memory. Mnemonics, or rhymes are a common aid to remembering material that otherwise might be difficult to recall. As a child, learning to recite i over e except after c when you were trying to spell a word containing that vowel combination is an example of a mnemonic. The method of loci is a mnemonic device that be used to when you want to remember a list of items such as a grocery list. Select a familiar place your home, for example and simply associate the items to be remembered with locations there. For example, visualize the first item you want to remember in its place on the driveway, the second in the garage, and the third at the front door, and so on until you have associated the item you want to remember with a specific location. Overlearning is another method of improving memory. Overlearning is practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error. It makes material more resistant to forgetting (p.173). 14. Bandura proposed that four processed determine whether observational learning will occur: Attention: The observer must attend to the model. Retention: The observer must store information about the models behavior in memory. Reproduction: The observer must be physically and cognitively capable of performing the behavior to learn it. In other words, no matter how much time you devote to watching Serena Williams play tennis or listening to Beyonce sing, you wont be able to acquire skills like these unless you possess talents that are equal to theirs. Reinforcement: Ultimately, to exhibit a behavior learned through observation, an observer must be motivated to practice and perform the behavior on his own (p.156). 15. In some cases, we are hampered in our efforts to solve problems in daily life because of functional fixedness, the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems. Objects you use everyday such as, tools, utensils, and other equipment are what help you perform certain functions. Although, you probably do not think to use the normal functions of such objects in new and creative ways. Suppose you wanted a cup of coffee, but the glass pot for you coffeemaker was broken. If you suffered from functional fixedness, you might come to the conclusion that there was nothing you could do to solve the problem at that moment. But, rather than thinking about the object you dont have, think about the function that it needs to perform. Another impediment to problem solving is mental set, the tendency to continue to use the same old method even though another approach might be better. Perhaps you hit on a way to solve a problem once in the past and continue to use the same technique in similar situations, even though it it not highly effective of efficient. The cognitive process that underlies both functional fixedness and mental set is confirmation bias, the tendency to selectively pay attention to information that concerns preexisting beliefs and ignore data that contradict them. For example, when faced with an operating system crash, most computer users know that the first line of defense is to reboot. Every time rebooting solve the problem, confirmation bias in favor of rebooting as a solution for computer problems becomes stronger. As a result, when a problem arises that proves resistant to rebooting, most of us try rebooting a few more times before we confront the reality that rebooting isnt going to solve the problem (p.209).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Fight Club by Jack Palahniuk :: Movie Film Fight Club Jack Palahniuk Essays

Fight Club by Jack Palahniuk â€Å"You are not your job. You are not how much you have in the bank. You are not the contents of your wallet. You are not your khakis. You are not a beautiful and unique snowflake. What happens first is you can’t sleep. What happens then is there’s a gun in your mouth. And what happens next is you meet Tyler Durden. Let me tell you about Tyler. He had a plan. In Tyler we trusted. Tyler says the things you own, end up owning you. It’s only after you’ve lost everything that you’re free to do anything. Fight Club represents that kind of freedom. First rule of Fight Club: You do not talk about Fight Club. Second rule of Fight Club: You do not talk about Fight Club. Tyler says self-improvement is masturbation. Tyler says self-destruction might be the answer.† The novel Fight Club, by Jack Palahniuk was published in 1996 and released as a motion picture starring Brad Pitt and Edward Norton in October of 1999. Both the novel and motion picture proved to be very successful in their release to the public for one simple reason: Fight Club is a reflection of the suffering experienced by the ‘Generation X’ male who feels trapped in a world of the grey-collar (or service) working-class, a world filled with materialism and distractions, a group of men raised in single-parent families often devoid of a male role-model, and a world where there is no great cause for the average North American male to fight for. Whether consciously, or subconsciously, the average ‘Generation X’ male of modern society can relate to and understand Fight Club, which makes both the novel and motion picture such an important proclamation regarding the state of our modern culture. In Fight Club, we meet our main character who comes to us without a name. He can be referred to as ‘Jack’ but his name is not important. He comes to us without a name because he represents ‘any man’, any one of those ‘Generation X’ males living in our society at present. Jack is a thirty-year old man employed as a recall coordinator for a major automobile company. He lives in a condo that is furnished with all the comforts of modern society, namely mass-produced furnishings that can be found in the homes of millions across North America. Jack owns a car and has obtained a respectable wardrobe for himself over the course of time.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

War and Terror - It’s Time to Stop the Killing :: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays

War and Terror - It’s Time to Stop the Killing Somewhere within the last 120,000 thousand years, our ancestors began migrations quite different from any that appear in the archeological record preceding that time and somewhere between forty and fifty thousand years ago those migrations accelerated to the point that Cro Magnon hominids, our forebears, settled every nook and cranny on the planet. The last major migration occurred when the land bridge opened up in Siberia, as the glacier receded ten thousand years ago, and Homo Sapiens, who our species had become by then, trudged all the way to Tierra del Fuego within a thousand years or so. Jared Diamond (â€Å"The Third Chimpanzee† & â€Å"Guns, Germs, and Steel†) makes a case for some biological change, probably related to speech, as the variable making such migrations possible. He also makes the observation that these human migrations were coincident with the extinction of large mammals. The archeological evidence seems to bear this out. All over the planet there is fossil evidence of the extinction of one large mammal after another at approximately the same time the human migrations happened in that part of the world. Some scientists speculate that the cause of these extinctions is more complicated than the fact that they are coincident with the expansion of the number of humans and they are probably right; but something of major proportions in the evolution of our species definitely changed to allow humans to sweep across all but the most uninhabitable places on earth in a relatively short period of time. Dr. Diamond is careful to temper his speculation with the caution that all the facts are not yet in, and probably never will be, I might add. As a biology-oriented scientist, he continues to look to some physical/anatomical change to account for the advances made by humans resulting in our capacity to take on the unknown dangers lying beyond the next range of mountains or across the next river. For a couple of million years humans had evolved fairly slowly toward that point when a â€Å"great leap† occurred in the pace of our development. Anatomically we are about the same now as we have been for the last 125,000 years, so the guess is that some language advancement made the difference. Linguists have traced the capacity to speak back through a few proto languages to a point where the development of the ability to speak gets lost War and Terror - It’s Time to Stop the Killing :: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays War and Terror - It’s Time to Stop the Killing Somewhere within the last 120,000 thousand years, our ancestors began migrations quite different from any that appear in the archeological record preceding that time and somewhere between forty and fifty thousand years ago those migrations accelerated to the point that Cro Magnon hominids, our forebears, settled every nook and cranny on the planet. The last major migration occurred when the land bridge opened up in Siberia, as the glacier receded ten thousand years ago, and Homo Sapiens, who our species had become by then, trudged all the way to Tierra del Fuego within a thousand years or so. Jared Diamond (â€Å"The Third Chimpanzee† & â€Å"Guns, Germs, and Steel†) makes a case for some biological change, probably related to speech, as the variable making such migrations possible. He also makes the observation that these human migrations were coincident with the extinction of large mammals. The archeological evidence seems to bear this out. All over the planet there is fossil evidence of the extinction of one large mammal after another at approximately the same time the human migrations happened in that part of the world. Some scientists speculate that the cause of these extinctions is more complicated than the fact that they are coincident with the expansion of the number of humans and they are probably right; but something of major proportions in the evolution of our species definitely changed to allow humans to sweep across all but the most uninhabitable places on earth in a relatively short period of time. Dr. Diamond is careful to temper his speculation with the caution that all the facts are not yet in, and probably never will be, I might add. As a biology-oriented scientist, he continues to look to some physical/anatomical change to account for the advances made by humans resulting in our capacity to take on the unknown dangers lying beyond the next range of mountains or across the next river. For a couple of million years humans had evolved fairly slowly toward that point when a â€Å"great leap† occurred in the pace of our development. Anatomically we are about the same now as we have been for the last 125,000 years, so the guess is that some language advancement made the difference. Linguists have traced the capacity to speak back through a few proto languages to a point where the development of the ability to speak gets lost

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet Essay

Known as a minimalist and experimental composer, Richard Gavin Bryars unleashed an emotionally intimate constructed piece out from a lone old vagrant singing, Jesus’ blood never failed me yet, this one thing I know, for he loves me so†¦ Originally recorded from footage of a documentary by his friend Alan Power in 1971 (Grimshaw), this aged voice served as the focal point and backdrop for Bryars’ poignant yet challenging work unfolding and reiterating itself over the course of 74 minutes in length. Whereas music that falls under Minimalist movement, sometimes associated the emotional neutralization of repeated materials, Bryars’ has the reverse effect in which rather than numbing the listener’s sensibilities, he heightens them and instead of imposing postmodern indifference toward the subject matter, it forces confrontation with it (Grimshaw). The entire lengthy music might deflate the interest of its listeners as the lines simply repeated over the recording, but Bryars managed to extract the spirit of the tramp’s captive song as he slowly introduced an accompaniment. The first part was merely the sole voice of the old man then eventually enhanced by string quartet, followed by plucked bass and guitar. Moreover, as the instruments subsequently fade out, the tramp’s song continues and eventually underscored by a much richer sounding ensemble of low strings, then woodwinds, brass, and delicate percussion and finally full orchestra and choir (Grimshaw). The soul of the music originated from the compassionate nature of the old vagrant who sang the religious tune during the recording of Power’s documentary that was about the life of street-people around Elephant and Castle and Waterloo in London. Bryars’ recounted; while they are filming the documentary, some people broke into drunken ballad or opera songs, but there was a particular homeless old man sang â€Å"Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet†. When he played it at home, he noticed the exact tune of the singing to his piano, and, he discerned that the first section of the song that is 13 bars in length formed an effective loop that repeated in a slightly unpredictable way. Therefore, he took the tape to Leicester and copied the loop onto a continuous reel of tape having the idea of adding orchestrated accompaniment to it. During the act of copying, he left the door that lead to the large painting studios, and when he came back, he found people weeping and silently listening over the old man’s singing, at that point, he realized a great emotional influence from the noble faith and tranquil music (Howse), a merely accidental root behind this epic. This particular Bryars’ piece was a breakthrough as there were other versions made during the latter years. Tom Waits singing along with it in 1990 and Jars of Clay released their own version on their album Who We Are Instead in 2003, aside from the fact that it was also used for several theatrical presentations. Covering credits for its very straightforward message to the people, the unyielding constancy of the lyrics—repeated over 150 times—essentially keeps the music from achieving greater feats. It is said that no matter how many times you paint a house, it remains to be the same house. Still, that verse holds together the entirety of the minimalist piece, a factor that you cannot simply neglect. Focusing on keeping his music very simple yet haunting, this composer and double bassist is a native from Goole, East Riding of Yorkshire, England and born on January 16, 1943. His first musical reputation was as a jazz bassist working in the early sixties with improvisers Derek Bailey and Tony Oxley. He abandoned improvisation in 1966 and worked for a time in the United States with John Cage, until he collaborated closely with composers such as Cornelius Cardew and John White. He taught in the department if Fine Art in Portsmouth, Leicester from 1969 to 1978, and there he founded the legendary Portsmouth Sinfonia, an orchestra whose membership consisted of performers who â€Å"embrace the full range of musical competence† — and who played or just attempted to play popular classical works. He also founded the Music Department at Leicester Polytechnic (later De Montfort University) and served as professor in Music from 1986 to 1994. Meanwhile, his first major work as a composer owe much to the so-called New York School of John Cage—with whom he briefly studied, Morton Feldman, Earle Brown and minimalism. His earliest piece was The Sinking of Titanic (1969) and was originally released under Brian Eno’s Obscure Label in 1975 and the Jesus’ Blood Never Failed Me Yet (1971) both famously released in new versions in the 1990s on Point Music Label, selling over a quarter of a million copies. The original 1970s recordings have been re-released on CD by Virgin Records. A major turning point in his development was his first written opera Medea, premiered at the Opera de Lyon and Opera de Paris in 1984. He has written another two operas, both with libretti by his long time collaborator Blake Morrison: Doctor Ox’s Experiment, and G, commissioned by the Staatstheater Mainz for the Gutenberg 600th Anniversary. Aside from that, Bryars has also produced a large body of chamber music including three string quartets and a saxophone quartet both for his own ensemble and for other performers. He has also written extensively for strings as well as producing concertos for violin, viola, cello, double bass, saxophone and bass oboe. He has also written choral music, chiefly for the Latvian Radio Choir, with whom he has recently recorded a second CD, and for the Estonian Male Choir. From being a jazz bassist, composer, professor and opera writer, he also made a name as he collaborated with visual artists, worked with choreographers who have used his pieces, and written numerous Laude for the soprano Ana Maria Friman, to name a few. And to date, he recently completed a theatre piece, To Define Happiness, with Peeter Jalakas for Von Krahl theatre in Tallinn, and a project around Shakespeare’s sonnets, Nothing Like the Sun, with the Royal Shakespeare Company and Opera North. Gavin Bryars is an Associate Research Fellow at Dartington College of Arts and Regent of the College de ‘Pataphysique. And married to Russian-born film director Anna Tchernakova with three daughters and a son. He is currently living in England and British Columbia, Canada. WORKS CITED Howse, Christopher. â€Å"The Assurance of Hope†. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006. xix. ISBN 0-8264-8271-6 Mckeating, Scott. http://www. stylusmagazine. com/articles/seconds/gavin-bryars-jesus-blood-never-failed-me-yet. htm Grimshaw, Jeremy. â€Å"All Music Guide†. http://www. answers. com/topic/jesus-blood-never-failed-me-yet-orchestral-classical-work http://www. gavinbryars. com/ http://www. myspace. com/gavinbryarsmusic http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Jesus%27_Blood_Never_Failed_Me_Yet

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Traits Model of Leadership

The Traits Model of Leadership Hashtag: #labourleadership Mark of a Good Leader The Traits Model of Leadership There is a popular impression that being an intellectual is one thing and being an effective leader is another. Intellectuals, according to the literature, are often seen as eccentric, iconoclast, awkward, irresponsible, self-absorbed, and individualistic thus incapable of leading collective activities.   For instance, in relation to #labourleadership or UK’s Labour Party leadership where alleged anti-austerity Jeremy Corbyn was recently elected, several politicians who led this political party in the past were not effective leaders. The late Michael Foot according to author Bruce Macfarlane had very strong academic and intellectual credentials but was not prepared to compromise his beliefs for the sake of political expediency. In fact, he is always remembered as the leader who endorsed the dispatched of the task force in the Falklands War in 1982 and led the Labor Party to its greatest election defeat in 1983. The traits model of leadership suggests that the characteristics of a person are a predictor of both successful and unsuccessful leaders.   For instance, although an intelligent, self-confident, determined, honorable, and sociable person has the capacity to be a leader, he or she according to study needs to possess the five personality factors – neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. These personality factors suggest that the most effective leaders have tendencies to be depressed, anxious, insecure, and hostile. They are not only sociable and assertive, and have positive energy, but informed, creative, insightful, and curious. They are people that have the tendency to accept, confirm, trust, and nurture. Finally, they are systematic, prepared controlled, dependable, and decisive individuals. A leader, according to the literature needs to be effective in guiding the conduct of others, thus must be effective in conveying meanings and intentions, and in receiving them. A leader for that matter does not necessarily need to be an intellectual, a quality of a person that according to organization and management expert and author Chester Bernard does not work well with leadership.   The reason is that people with superior intellect and greater intellectual accomplishments are often absent-minded, non-punctual, non-decisive, and not interested in people.   Although intellectual abilities are sometimes a critical element in leadership, it is not a substitute for the other essential qualities of leadership such as those mentioned earlier. You may like these articles: Combining Academic Knowledge and Practicality Bright Sides of Academic Intellectuals We Call Nerds The Value of Academic Debate Practice What You Preach Who and What Deserve Respect? None Creature Can Fly with Just One Wing Successful leadership occurs where heart and mind meet, the two powerful wings that allow a leader to excel.   According to the study, leaders need to have enough intellect in order to understand and perform the tasks at hand, a quality that gets people in the leadership door. However, although intellect is considered a fundamental leadership trait, it is not enough to make a leader. For instance, aside from intellect, a leader need to motivate, guide, inspire, listen, persuade, and create resonance in order to execute a vision. Intellect, according to Albert Einstein, has â€Å"powerful muscles, but no personality†¦it can serve but cannot lead†.   Moreover, Swami Vivekananda, a key figure in Indian philosophy noted in one of his London lectures that â€Å"intellect is blind and cannot move by itselfInactive secondary help, the real help is feeling†.   Moreover, intellect without feelings cannot generate â€Å"authentic power†, the sustainable type of power over individual and organizations that according to the literature is the result of mastery of authenticity and emotional intelligence – unconditional trust, respect, honesty, truth, fairness, openness, care, and forgiveness.   Authentic power is generated by a leader’s capacity to do things with others while the quality of interactions and relationships is determined by the level of his or her emotional and social intelligence.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Comparison of the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of DID and PTSD

Comparison of the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of DID and PTSD Introduction Psychology is the academic discipline dealing with the study of human behaviour and mental functions (Burton, 2010). As such, psychologists are described as social or cognitive scientists. The scientists and professionals explore human characters, such as perception, emotions, and personality. The aim of such exploration is to assess and treat psychological disorders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison of the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of DID and PTSD specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to try and explain why people act and behave the way they do. Information gathered from such analyses is taken into consideration when making decisions in many contemporary organisations (Barlow Durand, 2011). Organisations that use such information in their operations include the government and private companies and corporations. The information is especially important when hiring personnel. Individuals psychological information helps other people in making informed decisions when dealing with the individual. The information can also be used in assigning work to the individual. Dissociative Identity Disorder (herein referred to as DID) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (herein referred to as PTSD) are classified as mental disorders. The two have formed the basis of research for many psychologists. The psychologists have made efforts to identify the root causes, treatment, and diagnostic procedures associated with the conditions. According to Dr. Brad Wright (and as cited in Farrell, 2011), the two conditions are significantly different from each other. Post traumatic stress disorder develops when an individual is exposed to any form of psychological trauma. Dissociative identity disorder is known by several other names. One of them is â€Å"Multiple Personality Disorder†. The condition is associated with individuals who exhibit two distinct personalities. It is characterised by forgetfulness or amnesia (Shettleworth, 2010). In this essay, the author will analyse the two conditions, comparing and contrasting their various aspects. The author will focus on the similarities and differences between the conditions’ etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The Etiology of DID and PTSD: A Comparison Etiology of DID Etiology is the study of the origin and cause of a given phenomenon (Overskeid, 2007). It is commonly used in medicine to determine why and how things take place. The concept aims at providing a mythical explanation for a certain condition or phenomenon.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Over the years, many researchers and philosophers have come up with various possible causes of dissociative identity disorder. However, most are in agreement that the disorder is brought about by maladjusted r eactions to trauma. Such trauma is in most cases linked to childhood physical and sexual abuse (Hergenhahn, 2005). Most individuals suffering from this disorder had a traumatic experience in their childhood. Neglect and lack of parental care are largely associated with the disorder. Individuals exposed to extreme physical abuse in the past tend to be violent and brutal in later life. Psychologists associate this phenomenon with attempts by individuals to forget their past miseries. The failure to forget leads to frustration, which is expressed through acts of violence and brutality. Individuals who were exposed to acts of violence in the past are likely to try and expose others to similar conditions. The attempt explains the rising cases of violence in the society. Research has shown that criminals suffering from dissociative identity disorder expose their victims to ordeals that are similar to those they were exposed to in the past. Such developments give rise to a cycle of crime a nd violence, which turns victims into offenders. Self destructive behaviours have also been identified as possible causes of the disorder (Pinel, 2010). Individuals exhibiting such traits tend to be violent towards themselves and towards others. Etiology of PTSD Post traumatic stress disorder develops after an individual is exposed to an event associated with intense fear, horror, and a sense of helplessness (Reisner, 2005). However, psychologists have identified other possible causes of post traumatic stress disorder. They include past life experiences and inherited traits, such as individual personality. Individuals who had traumatic experiences in their past make the bulk of patients diagnosed with this disorder. Personality aspects that may influence the individual’s susceptibility to the disorder include, among others, temperament and ability to deal with stress. Regulation of hormones and such other chemicals as adrenaline by the brain is also associated with the condit ion. Exposure to risk factors is another possible cause of post traumatic stress disorder. Such exposure explains why many soldiers and people living in war torn areas are more likely to suffer from post traumatic stress disorder compared to other individuals.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Comparison of the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of DID and PTSD specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are several similarities between the etiologies of the two psychological disorders. For example, both conditions are associated with past traumatic experiences. Individuals suffering from either of the two conditions are likely to have witnessed traumatic events in their life (Carver Scheier, 2004). Individuals react variously to such traumatic events. As a result of this, some of the individuals exposed to the traumatic events may fail to develop the condition. For example, those suffering from dissociative identity diso rder are violent towards other people. On the other hand, those suffering from post traumatic stress disorder live in perpetual fear of being abused or experiencing the traumatic events again. Diagnosing DID and PTSD: A Comparison Overview In most cases, individuals suffering from these disorders are unaware of their condition. It is also hard for family members and the society at large to diagnose the disorders. The inability to diagnose is attributed to the fact that the effects of these disorders are mainly psychological. As such, it is not easy to point out the characteristics. The case is different for other disorders, whose effects are expressed physically (Gelder Geddes, 2005). In most cases, the individual is not aware of their condition when they seek medical assistance. Diagnosing DID To diagnose dissociative identity disorder, the psychologist needs to conduct a thorough psychological examination of the patient. A medical examination is necessary to determine whether the patient has any physical disorders that may explain their symptoms (Glaser Strauss, 2005). Examinations are carried out through oral interviews or questionnaires prepared in advance. Hypnosis or drugs are also used to make it easy for the patient to reveal personal information to the doctor (Barlow Durand, 2011). In most cases, patients complain of amnesia. The individual is unable to remember events that took place within a particular period of time. They also suffer from memory loss. In extreme cases, the patient may forget about close friends and family members. The individuals are depressed and may exhibit suicidal tendencies in extreme cases (Ron, 2008). In addition, some patients diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder complain of either audio or visual hallucinations.Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Diagnosing PTSD To diagnose post traumatic stress disorder, the professional needs to take into consideration the signs and symptoms exhibited by the individual. Patients are asked to explain their signs and symptoms. They try to explain what the signs are, the time they occur, and their intensity (Reinders, 2008). Individuals are also required to narrate the events preceding the symptoms. A patient has to meet a set of pre-defined criteria before the professional comes to a conclusion. Diagnosing post traumatic stress disorder and dissociative personality disorder calls for a series of psychological and medical assessments. Assessments are carried out orally or through the use of a questionnaire. Examinations to check for other medical problems are carried out to ensure that the correct diagnosis is made (Boysen, 2011). Treating DID and PTSD: A Comparison Treating DID calls for the combination of various states of personality (Stern, 2012). Interaction between the different persona lities helps the person to function normally. Drug therapy is used to relieve such symptoms as fear, anxiety, and depression. Psychotherapy is considered as emotionally painful. Individuals undergoing therapy experience emotional crises especially when recalling traumatic memories during therapy sessions. Hypnosis is also applied in therapy. Therapy sessions take place over a long period of time, usually over 3 to 6 years. Individuals are treated for other serious health problems that are exhibited, such as drug and substance abuse. Treating PTSD aims at helping individuals gain control over their own life. Individuals suffering from the disorder are advised to accept their condition. They are also empowered to cope with stress and such other phenomena. Unlike dissociative personality disorder, treating post traumatic stress disorder requires a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy. There are various forms of drugs administered to those suffering from the disorder. They incl ude antipsychotics, antidepressants, and prazosin (Spiegel, 2006). Each of these drugs has a particular function. In psychotherapy, various interventions are used. The interventions include cognitive therapy, which involves empowering the individual to perceive things accurately to reduce trauma. Cognitive therapy is used together with other interventions, such as exposure therapy. The latter encourages the patient to face or confront the situations that scare them the most (Ross, 2009). Other interventions, such as eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy, help the individuals in processing traumatic memories. There are obvious similarities between the treatment procedures for the two disorders. In both cases, the doctor attending to the patient aims at reducing the effects of the trauma (Farrell, 2011). In addition, treating the two conditions involves psychotherapy. A close relationship between the patient and the doctor in-charge must be maintained. The aim here is to increase the efficiency of the therapy sessions. Conclusion Psychology is a field of study dealing with human behaviour and brain functions. The discipline involves the assessment of such human characteristics as perceptions and emotions in efforts to explain individual actions (Singh Chakrabarti, 2008). Psychology has helped in diagnosing and treating various mental disorders, among them post traumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder. Many people suggest that DID and PTSD are the same. However, significant disparities exist between the two with regard to etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. But there are also similarities between the two conditions. For example, the two disorders are associated with past traumatic experiences. References Barlow, D. H., Durand, V. M. (2011). Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Boysen, G. (2011). The scientific status of childhood dissociative identity disorder: A rev iew of published research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80(6), 329-34. Burton, L. (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology. Queensland, Australia: John Wiley and Sons. Carver, C., Scheier, M. (2004). Perspectives on personality. Boston, USA: Pearson. Farrell, H. (2011). Dissociative identity disorder: Medicolegal challenges. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39(3), 402–406. Gelder, M., Geddes, A. (2005). Psychiatry. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. Glaser, B., Strauss, A. (2005). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, USA: Aldine. Hergenhahn, B. (2005). An introduction to the history of psychology. Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth. Overskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and finding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590–595. Pinel, J. (2010). Biopsychology. New York, USA: Prentice Hall. Reinders, A. (2008). Cross-examining dissociative id entity disorder: Neuroimaging and etiology on trial. Neurocase, 14(1), 44–53. Reisner, A. (2005). The common factors, empirically validated treatments, and recovery models of therapeutic change. The Psychological Record, 55(3), 377–400. Ron, S. (2008). The Cambridge handbook of computational psychology. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. Ross, C. (2009). Errors of logic and scholarship concerning dissociative identity disorder. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 18(2), 221–231. Shettleworth, S. (2010). Cognition, evolution and behaviour. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. Singh, S., Chakrabarti, S. (2008). A study in dualism: The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(3), 221–223. Spiegel, D. (2006). Recognizing traumatic dissociation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 566–568. Stern, D. (2012). Witnessing across time: Accessing the present from the past and the past from the present. The Psychoana lytic Quarterly, 80(1), 53–81.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Human Resource Planning of the New Lounge with Asian Cuisine

Human Resource Planning of the New Lounge with Asian Cuisine Business concept The new lounge with Asian cuisine will focus on offering nutritious food and beverages to residents of Seattle, Washington. The establishment will specialize in a combination of upscale foods. The foodstuffs will comprise of rice, chilies, soy, salads, and certain recipes focusing on Asian cuisine.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Human Resource Planning of the New Lounge with Asian Cuisine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on its distinctive menu, the lounge will concentrate on a differentiation strategy, which will offer exclusive foods around Seattle, Washington. The keys to success for this lounge will be an ideal location and special Asian cuisine. A group of Asian investors in the region will own the business. The stakeholders will offer $50,000 capital investment. The additional $20,000 will be raised through a short-term loan from local banks.  Breaking into this market is expe cted to be a challenge. We expect to face competition from small and medium mobile food stalls spread across Seattle. The other competitors are restaurants and food kiosks that offer catering services. To gain a competitive advantage over our competitors, we will differentiate our products and services (Champniss, 2011). One major way of fulfilling the above is through value addition. As such, we plan to locate our business in Downtown Seattle. Here, the cost of renting space is significantly low. The cost saved in renting the premises will enable us to sell our services and products at lower prices compared to the prices charged by our competitors. By offering cheaper and quality services, we will eventually gain a competitive advantage in the market segment. Similarly, we will focus on improving the foods’ package to enhance their aesthetic appeal. All foods will be packed and served in impressive food packages designed to surpass our customers’ expectations. Through the above initiatives, they will be able to add value to its products and services and gain a competitive advantage over its rivals. The lounge will target clients who work or study in regions around the Seattle. According to the market insight, thousands of persons reside around Seattle and its environs. The number of these clients is expected to increase in the future (Dess Lumpkin, 2014).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main reason for positioning itself in this segment is that the business has the opportunity of incorporating new features to the existing service charter. They include online ordering of food services to cater to the changing demands and needs of the targeted customers. The vibrant tourism, efficient transport, increased government expenditure, and improved trade in the region imply that the business will be favorable and convenien t to many individuals (Cone, 2011). An increase in government expenditure means that there is more money in circulation, and more people can afford to enjoy the food services at our lounge.  The lounge will also adopt an all-inclusive marketing and advertising promotions. Social media such as Twitter and Facebook are currently the most utilized platforms, and we will exploit them positively to reach more customers in the city of Washington and its environs. The above will not only control losses but also give an accurate record of sales and projections. The advent of computer scanners at retail checkout counters means that the supply of our business will be accompanied with the proper technology. The above will ensure strategic product positioning in the dynamic Washington market. With technological advancements, we will always be ready to adopt innovations in our services to ensure that they remain relevant in the business field. Through social media, we will encourage more poten tial clients to access our services. The social media will also enable us to interact with potential clients to understand their expectations (Farris, 2010). Every year, the business must adopt new entertainment technologies to be ahead of its rivals. Similarly, we plan to form alliances with restaurant chains and kiosks, as well as with event organizers and corporate offices to capture market share. By doing so, we will be able to increase our source of income. HR management plan Organization chart, management team, and employee positions The organizational structure of the hotel displays a divisional corporate order. The divisional order is predominant service sections of the lounge. The sections include housekeeping segment, food and beverage segment, concierge segment, and front desk management. For instance, the big segments of the enterprise are separated into semi-autonomous bodies. The smaller segments are apportioned to a specific field of service. Every semi-autonomous seg ment has a group head. As such, the group head is selected as the management officer of that specific segment. At the top of the hierarchy is the hotel manager. The present-day economic conditions in the hotel industry are characterized by increased competition.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Human Resource Planning of the New Lounge with Asian Cuisine specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this regard, the lounge will adopt the above organizational structure to save on the cost of operation. The organizational structure has many advantages. Through this structure, every section functions effectively for the reason that they are centered on certain precise task. By doing so, the bank has been able to enhance the output of every section. Below is a figure showing the organizational chart of the lounge. The hotel manager manages the overall undertakings like hiring and making financial arrangements. The assista nt manager acts on behalf of the general manager in his or her absence. The junior manager reports to the overall manager. Since the lounge operates on 24 hours basis, an evening shift administrator will be required to night operations. A supervisor directs every functional group. The supervisor reports to the general manager. Fig 1: Organizational chart of the lounge Compensation and benefits Present financial situations in the hotel sector are characterized by increased operating costs (Collins Ewing, 2012). Recruitment and hiring of new employees contribute to the rise in operating costs. Therefore, the lounge will adopt a competitive reward scheme to reduce the employee turnover. Expecting to be among the top Asian cuisines in Seattle, the lounge’s reward systems are expected to be competitive. As such, the hotel’s reward scheme is expected to indicate the individuals to be awarded and the reason behind the rewards. The practice will enhance individual performanc e and general firm outcomes. The reward scheme balances with the organization’s culture. Policies and processes for attracting, motivating, and retaining employees Attracting, inspiring, and retaining skilled workforce is significant and often challenging for todays businesses. Appropriate staffing measures will aid the hotel intensify the satisfaction of its workers, reduce recruiting costs, and increase the hotel’s productivity.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The hotel should offer a positive working environment for its staff. Through this, the lounge will be able to attract and retain qualified workers. A positive work environment enables the employees to undertake their roles without challenges. Thus, the productivity of the lounge will increase. Similarly, the business should identify, compensate, and support the right behavior to attract and retain a competent workforce. Through this, the worker’s morale will be boosted. By involving and engaging the employees, the hotel will be able to motivate its workforce. As such, individuals are more dedicated and involved if they are allowed to add their thoughts and proposals towards the improvement of the business. Equally, the hotel should adopt fun in the workplace to motivate the employees. The initiative will enable the employees develop a positive staff culture, boost their morale and motivation, and enhance employer and employee relationship. Likewise, the approach will improve teamwork, boost employee satisfaction, help attract and retain the best people, and improve customer satisfaction. The initiative will also enhance creativity and problem solving, resolve conflict and difficult issues, and augment productivity and performance. Making ethical decisions For effective operation and ethical decisions, the lounge will adhere to required code of ethics. To prevent conflicts between the hotel and the law, the lounge will formulate and implement an appropriate ethical culture (Ferrell Fraedrich, 2014). The code of ethics will articulate the accepted standards. To achieve this, the lounge will be required to strengthen ethical culture and promote an ethical workforce within the executive branch. Similarly, the code of ethics will be used to institutionalize ethics within the firm. The code of ethics will illustrate a broad value system of an organization, describe the organization’s principles, and detail guidelines for decision making that are in ac cordance with these principles. Thereafter, the general manager should ensure that the code of ethics is implemented and adhered to at all time. Adhering to the code of ethics is very important to the lounge because it will reduce unethical practices. Unethical practices affect the morale of employees. Ethical wrongdoings have the potential to harm the lounge’s associations with customers, clients, shareholders, and suppliers. Managing diversity The new lounge just like other global hotel ought to uphold diversity. Through this, all employees and the management team should change the way they think, perform, and innovate. By embracing diversity management, the lounge will reap the benefits associated with diversity’s and reduce the potential hurdles like preconceptions that can weaken the operation of a diverse workforce (Volberda, 2012). Diversity in the hotel will be exhibited through the workers’ dissimilarities and similarities. The above implies that managi ng diversity will involve not only the management of race, ethnic, or gender, issue but also other complicated issues that bring out the differences of the employees. Some programs will be implemented to improve diversity in the workplace. Therefore, a management team will ensure that they offer strong leadership, evaluate the situation, offer diversity-teaching programs, transform culture, and evaluate the existing diversity administration programs.  Similarly, the lounge should also train its workforce about the importance of diversity. During the training, employees and the managers will be taught to recognize diversity mixtures in their departments. In doing so, the managers will be able to identify themselves with these features in their departments. Equally, managers should be taught how to scrutinize the mixtures and their associated pressures. Similarly, the training will inform managers on how to choose a suitable response. Through this training, they will be able to eval uate all the available alternatives. Likewise, hotel managers will come up with policies that encourage relationship among the employees. Through building relationship among the employees, the managers will enable the employees to understand and appreciate each other’s social, religious, or racial background (Wood, 2013). The above can be achieved by offering the employees with regular seminars, workshops, and other social events. Through this, they will get to know one another better enhancing mutual respect. Equally, human resource managers should foster mutual adaptation in the workplace to end issues related to religious mixtures. Through this initiative, every employee will be required to adjust his or her religious doctrines for the benefit of developing an appropriate work environment suitable for all religious groups. Evaluating performance To enhance the performance of the employees, the lounge’s executives will implement performance measurement strategies. Th e lounge will adopt quality and time performance measures. Quality performance measure will assess the value of the services rendered by the employees (Kreitner Cassidy, 2012). Equally, time performance will assess the period taken by the employees to render their services. To enhance the efficiency of the performance measures, the hotel will undertake the above assessment regularly.  Changes in performance measures and requirements related to enhancing the competency-base of workers to meet global requirements will also be monitored. Therefore, the hotel will implement a culture of accountability. Similarly, they will focus on results. When goals and visions are brought into line with organizational accountabilities, the administration can hold employees answerable for their tasks. Equally, performance measures will encourage workers to accomplish the lounge’s goals, missions, and objectives. Planning succession Appropriate succession planning measure will be put in place to recognize and develop internal staff with the possibility to fill vacancy positions in the hotel. The process is the most efficient and appropriate way of filling organization’s vacancies. Through this approach, the hotel will reduce its recruitment costs and orientation training expenses and time. The approach will offer employees with abilities to advance their career through regular training. As a result, employees will progressively develop and advance their careers. Through career advancement, workers’ morale will be enhanced enabling them to dispense their knowledge and capabilities effectively. Equally, by improving on the workforce’s morale the hotel will increase its productivity leading to an increase in returns. Ensuring a safe and non-discriminatory work environment In any organization, upholding safe and non-discriminatory work environment is considered a major management problem. The hotel will adopt appropriate organizational culture to addres s the issue. As such, organization culture determines how organizational members interact with each other. Appropriate organizational culture will minimize conflicts (Siegel, 2015). Usually, conflicts arise from personal differences or responsibility differences. Exceptional features of workplace setup also influence the conflicts. The features comprise of the stretched hours employees people spend in their workplace, the hierarchical arrangement of the business corporations, and financial or emotional the difficulties. The lounge’s executive will also ensure that the work environment is safe. Workplace accidents are a major concern to hotels’ managers and their workers. More often, accidents result from wet flows, spills, and sharp cutleries. In the lounge, managers and safety managers will supervise safety responsibilities. They will be required to ensure that the safety requirements of the employees and the clients are fulfilled. They will also ensure that appropria te systems are put in place to enable employees verify safety hazards. Similarly, the officials will ensure that all safety measures are upheld. References Champniss, G. (2011). Brand valued: how socially valued brands hold the key to a sustainable future and business success. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley. Collins, H., Ewing, K. D. (2012). Labour law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cone, S. (2011). Steal these ideas: Marketing secrets that will make you a star. New York, NY: John Wiley Sons. Dess, G., Lumpkin, G. (2014). Strategic management: Creating competitive advantages (7thed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Farris, P. (2010). Marketing metrics: The definitive guide to measuring marketing performance (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: FT Press. Ferrell, O., Fraedrich, J. (2014). Business ethics: ethical decision making and cases. San Francisco: Cengage learning. Kreitner, R., Cassidy, C. (2012). Management (12th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Siegel, D. (2015). S pecial Issue of Strategic Organization. Strategic Organization Journal, 13(2), 163-165. Volberda, H. (2012). Strategic Flexibility Creating Dynamic Competitive Advantages. Oxford Handbooks Online, 14(3), 23-34. Wood, M. (2013). The marketing plan: A handbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Slavery through Kara Walker Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Slavery through Kara Walker - Research Paper Example She is well known for her graphic use of silhouette figures to depict mirages American African slaves. A close look at her work reveals vividly the impact of slavery especially through eliminating depth in all visual perspectives of the art work. She further emphasizes the depth of the images through use of the overlapping techniques on the silhouettes hence creating scenes on the several aspects through which slaves were exploited. For instance, the images portray the slaves used as sexual objects. This essay uses the three of her works that is â€Å"Slavery! Slavery,† â€Å"Gone† and â€Å"The End of Uncle Tom† to explore slavery in the United States with emphasis on South America. In the 1830’s, slavery was concentrated in the south of the United States of America concentrated in small farms and large organizations, cities and towns and any other place extra man power was necessary. The slaves were property to their owner and all blacks were slaves as primarily, the slaves in the south of America performed tasks mostly in the plantations and homesteads of their masters. They took part in clearing new lands, digging ditches and other household chores for their masters; the black women cared for the young ones and prepared meals and other functions like spinning, sewing and weaving. As outlined in Blassingame (25), slavery in the antebellum period in the South America was focused on the plantation farms, and the homestead within the firms; this was primarily the period before the First World War. Carson (164) notes that the labor market was divided between blacks and whites in the community. The probability of both skilled and unskilled laborers was evident and comparable by race. The whites had higher chances in white color jobs compared to the blacks whose major area of work was in the unskilled domains. Other than plantations labor, slavery also involved debauchery activities. This primarily comprised of the slaves being forced into immoral

Friday, October 18, 2019

Relection Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Relection Paper - Essay Example In a very interesting study, Hannaford cites examples of the effects of exercise of body on stimulation of mind. The author maintains that exercising the body can enhance learning experience. I loved the book because it was very refreshing and had some original food for thought. Though I was aware of the benefits of exercising the body, I needed to know how it could stimulate learning and brain activity. Now I realize why it is extremely important for children in school setting to be exposed to physical exercise and sports. Because it is healthy thing to do and it also makes exercise a learning experience. The children must be involved in exercise and its benefits so they can discover them for themselves. It has been noted that children and teachers are both delighted by the manner in which exercise stimulates mind. I feel that in our schools we should make exercise mandatory for all students with the objective of making learning a better and more effective experience for them and for the teachers as well. Hannaford makes it clear that senses and emotions play a key role in enhancing the learning process and thus recommends exercise both before and after learning. She starts from a very young age which helped me in understanding how exercise could affect learning. She says that basic early exercise like crawling have a great impact on a child's learning abilities. Crawling "activate[s] both hemispheres in a balanced way" (Hannaford, 92).the author also insists that real learning process "starts with movement in response to a stimulus, then creates a context or experience to understand the sensory input" (99). What was really enlightening came in the form of findings on reading. I learned that children are not very receptive to silent reading till the age of seven. And thus this activity must be postponed till then. They should instead be taught in a way that would acknowledge their natural progression of skills and their bodies' natural development stage. I was happy to see that when applied in classroom, children actually responded very well to these new ways of learning. All the noise they create while laughing, sharing, building and moving around and learning was a healthy indication of their high involvement. Hannaford advocates the use of pictures and painting to enhance learning: "Most people need to discuss, write, or draw a picture of new ideas in order anchor them in the body with movement for memory and clarity of thought" (101). Hannaford also presents her findings on inhibitors that can affect learning. She identifies such factors as television, computers and video games as few inhibitors that may slow down the learning process. Children fully engrossed in sports are less likely to watch television or spend time on video consol. This is beneficial in terms of their health and also facilitates learning. Stress is shown as another major inhibition factor. In short, the book focuses on the finding that: "It is the full activation and balance of all parts of our body/mind system that allow us to become effective, productive thinkers" (106). And this I have found to be a finding worthy of affirming over and over again.

Response Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Response Paper - Essay Example Boswell appreciates the fact that Addison is able to propagate his sentiments and preference to his reader’s minds without them perceiving the influence. Johnson â€Å"writes like a teacher† (11.9): Boswell recognizes the authority and firmness that is reflected in Johnson’s work. The readers of the two authors have completely different experiences; Johnson’s readers are captivated from the start, his firm and commanding eloquence inspire his readers and they admire him for that. On the other hand, for Addison’s first time readers, his work provokes a feeling of aggression from him but once the reader indulges more into his work they become captivated. , â€Å"like a liquor of more body, seems too strong at first† (11.16), Boswell does not clearly say if any of the two is a better other but he recognizes and appreciates how readers are satisfied with their work. â€Å"so much do they captivate the ear, and seize upon attention†

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Interantional Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interantional Business - Essay Example The panel should act objectively while conforming to the WTO agreements in finding a solution that would resolve the dispute (August 2004). Procedure: The facts in this case arose from the World Trade Organization (WTO), Dispute Settlement Panel, in which several countries that included Canada, the European Union, and the United States alleges that Japan imposed lower taxes on shochu (locally produced alcoholic beverage) than other imported alcoholic beverage, like vodka in violation of Article III, paragraph 2, of the 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (August, 2004). The case reached this point based on the report by the panel claiming that the GATT Article III.2 is inconsistent with the Japanese Liquor Tax. The GATT Article III.2 indicates that a product imported should be subject directly or indirectly to internal taxes or other internal charges in excess of those applied, like domestic products (August, 2004). Issue(s): The legal issues surrounding this case begins with the recognition of the Article III.2 where it states, "so as to afford protection" as depicted in Article III.1 (August, 2004).

Introduction to Economics Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Introduction to Economics Assignment - Essay Example Free Market Economy is also characterized by the rights of individuals to buy and hold private property (Lipsey & Chrystal 2003). This characteristic is an incentive for both buyers and producers. It allows both buyers and producers to make bold and brave decisions. Since producer knows that he can own land, capital and other factors of production, he invests money into the system. Buyers also know that they can acquire goods, property or other thing of value now and can either consume it or store it for future consumptions. This moves the wheels of the economy and leads to equilibrium quantity demand and quantity supplied in the market. It also leads to price adjustments in the economy at a point where the motives of the buyers meets the motives of the sellers or producers. This is also called market creation or market searching. Market searching is the process when the market is trying to adopt or settle at the equilibrium price. Eventually market settles down at equilibrium becaus e in over priced market supply is greater than demand which eventually leads to price going down. If the market is under priced demand is going to be higher than supply and this will result in price hike and eventually equilibrium will be reached. Free Market Economies encourage the process of market searching through market forces working without any intervention from government or other control factors. (Brue & McConnell 2006) Adam Smith also pointed out an interesting phenomenon in the system. He laid the foundations for the concept of â€Å"Invisible Hand† in the free market economy. He was referring to the fact that everything changes in response to the movement in prices. In essence, he was telling the world that in order to achieve their own motives, buyers and producers end up doing good for the system. This interesting fact can be explained in the following example. When a person earns income in this system, he spends it on his necessities, needs and wants. The money spent in the economy changes hand and transfers from the hand of the person spending the money to the producers of goods and services wanted by that person. This encourages producers of these goods and services to employ more resources and produce more goods and services. This leads to employment generation in the economy and when people are employed they tend to invest and save more. This leads to further employment generation and the cycle continues. The focus in this example is on the trickledown effect in the Free Market Economy. Many countries where the socialism dominated previously have realized the importance of Free Market Economic System and are opening up themselves for more private investment and encouraging the development of private entrepreneurs that will provide the impetus for high economic growth rates. The debate here is not about how good or bad the free market system, but it is more about why aren’t countries adopting the model of free market economy in its perfect sense. Even USA is not a totally Free Market Economy. Government controls and regulates the economy in the United States of America as well. The reason for this is simple. Extremism in any system is bad. If a system is totally dominated by private sector without any government regulation of the economy, then there are chances that private businesses might exploit the resources, consumers and the environment. This would lead

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Interantional Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Interantional Business - Essay Example The panel should act objectively while conforming to the WTO agreements in finding a solution that would resolve the dispute (August 2004). Procedure: The facts in this case arose from the World Trade Organization (WTO), Dispute Settlement Panel, in which several countries that included Canada, the European Union, and the United States alleges that Japan imposed lower taxes on shochu (locally produced alcoholic beverage) than other imported alcoholic beverage, like vodka in violation of Article III, paragraph 2, of the 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (August, 2004). The case reached this point based on the report by the panel claiming that the GATT Article III.2 is inconsistent with the Japanese Liquor Tax. The GATT Article III.2 indicates that a product imported should be subject directly or indirectly to internal taxes or other internal charges in excess of those applied, like domestic products (August, 2004). Issue(s): The legal issues surrounding this case begins with the recognition of the Article III.2 where it states, "so as to afford protection" as depicted in Article III.1 (August, 2004).

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Subject matter must be directly related to the financial issues Essay

Subject matter must be directly related to the financial issues covered in the course.the sourse of your analysis should be from - Essay Example However before one chooses a particular fund source he/she needs to consider a number of factors with the first one being the risks associated with fund source. The organization in need of finance should also evaluate the kind of relationship they are likely to engage with the potential funder and most importantly, the costs associated with the financing requirements. The cost of fund source is an important consideration for an organization when in need of raising additional funds. The cost of capital, which is the cost of funds to be used for financing an operation undertaken by the organization can be understood from three main perspectives namely investor, company and mode of financing. From an investor point of view, cost of capital refers to the opportunity cost of choosing a particular investment over others. Most investors with a diversified portfolio often have a wide array of investment opportunities where they can invest their money but they often opt for a specific investm ent. Pratt and Grabowski (2010) assert that the decision to invest in a specific investment often made based on the rate of return earned over that specific investment compared to others. ... The rates of return from ABC inform of bond interest and UVW which is inform of divided will play a critical role in informing the investors decision to make investment especially if they are of similar risk considering that each comes with its own opportunity cost. In other words, cost of capital is comparable to the internal Rate of return (IRR) which measures the desirability of a wide range of projects. From a company perspective, cost of capital refers to the measurable cost of acquiring funds from a particular source in order to finance a particular project. For instance, company that uses loan from a bank to finance its projects, its cost of capital will be the money needed to compensate the bank inform of loan interest. Armitage (2005) elucidate that cost of capital is a crucial benchmark for making financial decisions relating to investments in a new project by companies. This is because it forms the minimum amount of return that the owner of funds will require before issuin g funds to the company inform of capital. In other words, the company must be able to pay the cost associated with a particular fund source before acquiring funds. This means that the returns from the project to be financed must be higher than the average cost of obtaining the capital to finance it. Companies are known for borrowing money to finance different projects such as expansion programs, product development, and purchase assets and they often cost of acquiring funds as their basis for project evaluation as projects with low returns and high cost of finance cannot be financed (Lumby & Jones, 2003). For instance an organization that

Mental Health Study Guide 1 Essay Example for Free

Mental Health Study Guide 1 Essay Define and describe psychiatric and mental health nursing: Psychiatric nursing focuses on care and rehab of people with identifiable mental illness or disorder Mental Health nursing focuses on well and at risk population to prevent mental illness or provide immediate treatment for those with early signs of a disorder. Psychiatric mental health nursing is described by Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Scope and Standard of Practice as committed to promoting mental health through the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of human responses to mental health problems and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric mental health nursing uses the study of human behavior as its science and purposeful use of self as its art. It views people holistically, considering their strength, needs, and problems. It is based on physical and social science, designed to meet needs of people with health problems, provided by caring and knowledgeable professionals, relies on problem solving approach to plan, deliver, and evaluate care. 2. Trace the history of psychiatric mental health nursing in the US as it applies to patient centered care: 3. Identify significant trends in healthcare and their effects on psychiatric nursing 4. Describe the difference between various theories Psychodynamic- psychoanalytic theory derives from Sigmund Freud. Central to analytic theory is the idea of unconscious which contains repressed memories. Although a person is unaware of unconscious material, repressed thoughts seek expression thorugh dreams, fantasies or may lead to irrational or maladaptive behavior. A goal of psychodynamic counseling is to expand awareness on unconscious functioning and its relation to daily living. To Freud, personality is composed of three subsystem: id, ego , superego. Cognitive- Guides two major schools of thoughts: Albert Ellis’s rational emotive theory and Aaron Beck’s cognitive theory. Both emphasize the role of cognition (thoughts) in how people feel and act Rational emotive therapy (Ellis theory) event do not cause emotional or behavioral consequences directly. Rather, beliefs about these activating events are the most direct and important causes of how people feel and act. Rational emotive therapy (RET) emphasizes the disputation of irrational beliefs. Cognitive Theory (Becks)- holds that conditions such as depression result primarily from pervasive, negative misinterpretation . Behavioral- States that all behavior are learned, focuses on how environmental conditions result in acquisition, modification, maintenance, and elimination of adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. To a behaviorist, subjective experience did not provide acceptable scientific data, only study of directly observable behavior and the stimuli reinforcing conditions that control it could serve as a basis for formulating scientific principles. Concepts of behavioral theory are: conditioning, reinforcement, punishment, generalization and discrimination, modeling, shaping. Cognitive behavioral- Learning theorists, such as Donald Meichenbaum enhanced behavior therapy by introducing role of cognitions or mediating processes between a stimulus and response, which led to cognitive behavioral theory or cognitive behavioral management. This type of therapy is active, directive, highly structured, and time limited. Therapists are seen as teachers or coaches and expect clients to be engaged actively in their treatment, practicing new thoughts and behaviors through homework exercises developed by the therapist. Some cognitive behavioral techniques: Cognitive labeling, systematic rational restructuring, rational problem solving Humanistic- Recognizes the importance of learning and other psychological processes that traditionally have been the focus of research. Such processes include creativity, hope, love, self fulfillment, personal growth, values, and meaning. Humanists are concerned with the personal growth and potentialities of people. With their positive view of human nature, humanists believe that psychopathology results from the blocking or distortion of personal growth, excessive stress, and unfavorable social conditions. Sociocultural-focuses on role of social and cultural influences on the person. Culture can be thought of as the â€Å"glue† that holds certain groups together. It consists of socially acquired and transmitted symbols, beliefs, techniques, institutions, customs, and norms. Culture has been found to exert a great influence on the birth, development, and death of humans. Biophysical- referred to as medical model. Proposes that psychopathology results from physiologic condition, primary a deviation within the central nervous system. The reasons for these deviations are multifaceted, involving a complex interplay of genetics, temperament, development, brain circuitry, molecular biology, and environment. Interpersonal models- Emphasize the socialization of humans throughout their developmental stages. Failure to proceed through these stages satisfactorily lays the foundation for later maladaptive behavior. Emphasizes the role of early childhood in shaping self concept. Distorted self concepts can be traced to the person’s family. Two results of distorted self concepts are poor interpersonal functioning and self defeating games people learn to play. Interpersonal therapy is concerned with alleviating anxiety and pathogenic or problem causing relationships. 5. Discuss the rights of mental health clients and identify how these rights apply in practice: The basic rights of clients receiving psychiatric nursing care include: right to appropriate treatment, right to an individualized, written, treatment or service plan, right to ongoing participation in a manner appropriate to person’s capabilities, the right to be provided reasonable explanation in terms or language that client can understand, right not to receive a mode or course of treatment in the absence of informed, voluntary, written consent to treatment except during emergency, right not to participate in experimentation in the absence of informed, voluntary, written consent, right to freedom from restraint or seclusion, other than as a mode or course of treatment or restraint or seclusion during emergency, right to humane treatment environment that affords reasonable protection from harm and appropriate privacy with regard to personal needs, right to access on request, personâ €™s mental health record, right ( in the case of a person admitted on a residential or inpatient care basis, to converse with others privately, to have convenient and reasonable access to telephone and mails, see visitors, right to be informed promptly and in writing at time of admission of these rights, right to exercise rights without reprisal, right of referral to other providers upon discharge. 6. Identify situations in which the duty to warn should be invoked- The duty to warn should e invoked when there is possibility of harm. As a result of the Tarasoff decision, it is mandatory in most states for healthcare personnel to report any clear threat from clients about intent to harm specific people. Psychiatrists, psychotherapists, and other mental healthcare providers must warn authorities (if specified by law) and potential victims of possible dangerous actions of their clients, even if clients protest.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Socioeconomic Influences On Learning And Development

Socioeconomic Influences On Learning And Development The factors that can affect learning and development Children’s development can be affected positively and negatively by a variety of different factors. These factors can take place externally and have a significant effect on a child’s life chances. Early years workers should have an understanding of the factors affecting learning and development of the children in their care. Factors that can affect learning and development are deveined into social environmental, economic and physical factors. Social Factors Social factors are those which involve communication with others. Children are very sociable and mix with others in a range of situations. Family The family unit is a small reflection of the wider society. Within a family unit, primary socialisation occurs in which, acceptable norms and values are introduced to children. The norms and values that young children learn from their family will initially believe that the way these are transmitted to them, are the same in all families. This supports the idea of ethnocentrism, in which in this case, the child’s culture is ‘normal’ while others are inferior. The experience within a child’s home has a direct impact on their life chances. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), early childhood is the utmost thorough time of a child’s brain development. In the first three years, a childs brain is highly sensitive to external factors (social, environmental, economic and physical factors etc.), for example, a family that doesn’t deliver a stimulating environment for children by not communicating regularly to enhance language development and does not develop a healthy bond with their child. This can result in the child being behind their developmental milestones. WHO informs families that a child who experiences a stressful environment is more likely to experience learning disabilities and have an increased risk of developing a stress-related illness such as; depression. Family structures include; Extended families Foster families One-parent families Step-families Shared-care families Nuclear families A child’s family has the responsibility to provide for a child’s needs. These include; Food and drink A home or shelter Warmth and clothing Love and companionship Protection and support Care and training A safe, secure environment in which they can develop encouragement Children depend on their family to provide them with the care and provision required to progress. The bond established between a baby and their parents or primary carer has a direct influence on development. Children who have a protected connection commonly develop into joyful, well balanced individuals. Those who have bad bond may experience difficulties with their growth. Children, who live in a pleasant, comforting family, in which the parents give inspiration, will benefit in their learning and development. In modern society the structure of the family can vary. This can again have an impact on a child’s learning and development. A child who lives in a one-parent family may not receive the same level of attention, as a child who lives in an extended family, (where grandparents live in their home together with their parents). A child whose parents have separated may experience stress, in which a child living in a nuclear family may not as it consists of both parents. Step families might generate difficulties for children because they have separated loyalties and may not get on with their step parent due to hatred. Shared care families, where children spend time with each of their parents in different homes, may produce a sense of insecurity and not knowing where they belong. Foster families care for children on a short-term basis and children may have suffered some form of distress before going there, such traumas can include; death of a family member, a type of abuse etc. Not kno wing whether they will stay or return to their parents can cause children to become distraught and confused. In addition, the family determine the language that is learnt and how language is expressed by a child. Bernstein identified two types of language codes, firstly, the elaborated code where children were able to communicate with the wider society more effectively. Secondly, the restricted code could not make progress and children’s speech was complex to understand. The language taught or used within a household is a child’s norm therefore they too are likely to use the same language with others. For example, if swearing is used within a family household, the child will believe this is acceptable to use in society. Young children find it difficult to make changes which are against the norms, values and culture of their family. The family will also have an impact on children’s attitudes and aspirations towards education. Some families, value education highly and are aware that education is vital to social success and economic stability in adult life. Such families e ncourage learning among their children as a positive experience and aspire to provide their children with the best suitable opportunities within education. Furthermore, they are likely to use early year’s provision as a way to extend their children’s learning and social skills, in preparation to school. This will give them an advantage to others. Parental guidance and support is essential to have an impact on their children’s attitude to education this can be positive or negative among children. In contrast, some families believe education is not necessary. Through this, children are less likely to attend early year’s provision and as a result are less prepared for the demands of school. Research has suggested that in some families where the parents have not worked education is not valued. Whatever family structure a child lives in, the family ought to make sure that they have the care, education and support they need. The culture, beliefs and values of a family have a direct influence on the learning and development of a child. Behaviour and moral values are learnt through primary socialisation within the family. Norms of behaviour are every so often imitated from other members of the family. As a child grows and develops, they mirror their upbringing in their personal characteristics. Environmental Factors Environmental factors are those linked to where a child lives, plays or attends for activities and education. Location The location where children live and grow up is a central part in their learning and development. It regulates the facilities they can access, the activities they can take part in, the ease with which they can visit friends and extended family members, their education, their behaviour, visits they can go on and opportunities they have for social communication. Families living in rural areas have access to many natural learning environments which can enhance their learning and development. Their interaction with nature and wildlife may compensate for any lack of facilities they experience. Nevertheless, children who grow up in a rural area may have limited facilities and have to travel to access early year’s education settings or other learning environments. Families that live in urban areas are likely to have more access to early year’s settings, have a variety of learning opportunities such as; playgrounds, museums, zoos and other areas of interest, have better transport networks to get to other places of interest quicker. They have access to a wide variety of facilities and activities close to where they live, which could enhance their leaning and development. However, children who live in an urban area may experience social deprivation and have to cope with high crime rates and vandalism. Children living in high rise flats have limited space to play in and may not experience playing outdoors because it is difficult for parents to supervise them. In addition, urban areas consist of many families living in poverty, due to poorly cramped housing conditions such as; children living in high levelled flats are restricted the opportunity to get fresh air and play and explore the environment. Individual’s health is at risk due to; pollution form vehicle exhaust and bi-products of industry. Statistics show that there are more one parent families living in inner city areas, and that these have limited access to family support networks. People often feel socially isolated, even though they are living in an area of high population, as neighbourhoods in today’s society do not always form the extended network they had used to. This may reduce the opportunities for interaction between children and adults. The government has recognised that these issues are having significant effect on children and their life chances. They are investing money in significantly deprived areas through the sure start scheme, with the aim of increasing access to good early year’s education. Following studies carried out by environmental and developmental psychologist Gary Evans, a Cornell University professor. Loud, overcrowded living conditions may damagingly have an impact on a childs social and emotional development. Research suggests that these environments ever so often resulted in parents communicating much less to children, for example, due to this infants and toddlers, will have few communication skills which will influence ability to connect with other people and build friendships. Children do not chose the location they live in and have to rely on the opportunities they have to aid their learning and development. Parents have a responsibility to ensure that wherever they live, their children do not feel deprived and can have a range of experiences to aid their development. This may involve taking them to activities in the car or on the bus if there is a distance to travel, supervising them wherever they are and being inventive with the activities they provide themselves. According to the World Health Organization, an intellectually stimulating environment aids social and emotional development by enhancing cognitive/intellectual development. They urge that a stimulating environment does not need a lot of money to produce, for example, parents can provide babies and toddlers with a harmless clean area to explore a few attention-grabbing toys and some baby-safe household items that produce noise and exploration. Economic Factors Economic factors can have a huge impact on the development of a child. Children cost money, as they require housing, food, clothes, toys and activities. Income Family income has a major influence on the opportunities children could have. It will impact the area which a child lives, the quality of food they eat, the toys they have access to in the home and learning opportunities they experience outside the home. The income of families differs significantly. One family may have two incomes, if both parents are working, whereas others may be dependent on benefits from the government. The children in both families have basic needs which should be met. A family must balance their income with necessary expenses, which consists of cautious budgeting. The amount of disposable income is the money left after the essentials are paid for, these can include; food, housing, clothing etc. The amount of disposable income left over will affect other factors such; outings, holidays, memberships of clubs and extracurricular activities that children may aspire to take part in (for example, swimming, dancing lessons etc.). Buying or renting a house or flat is one of the largest expenses a family may encounter. Some children may live in damp, overcrowded conditions in which children are restricted to play and be active while others may have a big house with central heating and a garden where children may play safely. These differences will affect the development of the child and the experiences/opportunities they have to improve their learning. Diet can also be affected by the income of a family. Children require a balanced diet with all the essential nutrients for growth and development. Some children may be deprived of the crucial nutrients if their parents cannot afford to buy fresh, healthy foods; this has an impact on a child’s development. Children whose parents both work might have a diet that consists of convenience foods that are not healthy. A child’s diet can also have a direct impact on their ability to learn, for example, if they skip breakfast they are very likely to be exhausted and unable to concentrate in school, yet a child who eats a healthy diet will be much more attentive and encouraged to learn. Evidence shows that parents will model unhealthy eating habits for their children, who are also dependent on their parents for what is put on the food table. Therefore, this suggests that parents must be healthy role models to ensure their children are too. Clothing is vital to preserve self-respect and keep children warm. Young children grow rapidly and every so often grow out of clothes before they are even old and worn out. Stylish clothing can be very expensive and children can experience peer pressure from others or even be bullied if they do not follow the popular trends. Therefore, this has a direct impact on their social and emotional development. In some cases, children may demand expensive clothing from their parents, who may be having trouble budgeting their income; this can affect the relationship between the child and parents and may lead to conflict with the child and parents being pressured. A University of California at Davis Center for Poverty Research study shows that how a mother responds to economic stress affects her childs social and emotional health. Mothers that respond negatively were more likely to have negative communication with their child/children. Researchers found over the long term, â€Å"a mother’s depressive symptoms are a better predictor of social competence than both income and education.† How parents cope with financial stress can have a stronger effect on childrens social and emotional development. Physical Factors When infants and children are poorly they become irritated and are incapable to understand new concepts; they may have trouble carrying out tasks that they could normally do easily before feeling unwell, for example even having a cold or a childhood illness such as; chicken pox or measles and cause specific problems. Disability Individuals that work with children and young people must have knowledge and understanding of the values of care, especially trying to ensure that they construct an environment and atmosphere that is beneficial to everybody. Practice means that the care setting will grow into a reality for children, families and colleagues. This can be achieved by; Displaying positive images of all people, for example, those with disabilities are shown positively in books and other materials Inspiring children to use their ideal language when participating in activities Singing in diverse languages to familiarise children with hearing different languages Having a care worker who could communicate using sign language or braille Ensuring children with physical disabilities have full access to all of the activities and equipment available within settings The arrangement of the activities might need to be altered within care settings, to ensure that children who do have physical disabilities can access all areas, for example, moving tables or having furniture of different heights. A variety of specialist equipment has been established to enable children with special needs to play and learn together with other children, for example, adjustable chairs or painting easels. Bibliography A03 Prendergast Sixth Form AS GCE Health and Social Care Six Unit Award Unit Specification Grading Criteria- 3.6 AS Unit F915: Working in Early Years Care and Education pages 27-30 Unit F915- Assessment Evidence Grid and Amplification of Criteria pages 114-118 Applied AS Health and Social Care Revised Edition Angela Fisher, Carol Blackmore, Stuart McKie, Mary Riley, Stephen Seamons, Marion Tyler OXFORD OCR pages 216-228 Unit 6 Working in Early Years Care and Education (6.2.4) GCE AS Level Double Award AS Level for OCR Health Social Care series editor Neil Moonie first published 2005 Unit 6 Working in Early Years and Education Pages 264-270 1 | Page